By Madeleine Catherine. Diagram. Publised at Sunday, November 19th 2017, 21:57:33 PM. On all but the simplest PCBs, wires must be printed on more than one surface of fiberglass to allow for all the required component interconnections. Each surface containing printed wires is called a layer. In a relatively simple PCB that requires only two layers, only one piece of fiberglass is required since wires can be printed on both sides. In a more complex PCB where several layers are required, individual circuit boards are manufactured separately and then laminated together to form one multi-layer circuit board. To connect wires on two or more layers, small holes called vias are drilled through the wires and fiberglass board at the point where the wires on the different layers cross. The interior surface of these holes is coated with metal so that electric current can flow through the vias. Most Digilent boards are simple four or six layer boards; some more complex computer circuit boards have more than 20 layers.
By Lydie Honorine. Diagram. Publised at Sunday, November 19th 2017, 20:50:47 PM. Sometimes, to make schematics more legible, we’ll give a net a name and label it, rather than routing a wire all over the schematic. Nets with the same name are assumed to be connected, even though there isn’t a visible wire connecting them. Names can either be written directly on top of the net, or they can be “tags”, hanging off the wire.
By Alix Loane. Circuit. Published at Wednesday, December 27th 2017, 00:57:22 AM. The real part and imaginary part of impedance are interpreted as a resistive part that dissipates energy and a reactive part that stores energy. Resistors can only dissipate energy and therefore their impedances have only a real part. Capacitors and inductors can only store energy and therefore their impedances have only an imaginary part. When resistors, capacitors, and inductors are combined, the overall impedance may have both real and imaginary parts. It is important to note that the definition of impedance preserves the definition of resistance.
By Bertille Solange. Circuit. Published at Wednesday, December 27th 2017, 00:32:02 AM. There are two kinds of energy sources in electronic circuits: voltage sources and current sources. When connected to an electronic circuit, an ideal voltage source maintains a given voltage between its two terminals by providing any amount of current necessary to do so. Similarly, an ideal current source maintains a given current to a circuit by providing any amount of voltage across its terminals necessary to do so.
By Bertille Solange. Diagram. Published at Wednesday, December 27th 2017, 00:30:05 AM. As discussed earlier, a digital circuit represents and manipulates information encoded as electric signals that can assume one of two voltages – logic-high voltage (or Vdd) and logic-low voltage (or GND). A digital circuit requires a power supply that can produce these two voltages, and these same supply voltages are also used to encode information in the form of two-state, or binary signals. Thus,if a given circuit node is at Vdd, then that signal is said to carry a logic ‘1’; if the node is at GND, then the node carries a logic ‘0’. The components in digital circuits are simple on/off switches that can pass logic ‘1’ and logic ‘0’ signals from one circuit node to another. Most typically, these switches are arranged to combine input signals to produce an output signal according to basic logic relationships. For example, one well-known logic circuit is an AND gate that combines two input signals to produce an output that is the logic AND of the inputs (i.e., if both input1 and input2 are a ‘1’, then the output is a ‘1’).
By Jessica Mireille. Power. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 23:57:09 PM. Voltage regulation is the process of holding a voltage steady under conditions of changing applied voltage and changing load current. Many electronic systems require a stable power supply voltage and use voltage regulators to accomplish that.
By Sasha Sara. Amplifier. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 23:51:43 PM. So at this point we have the signal and power grounds connected. Next is the chassis. There are a number of ways that we can accomplish this connection. The key thought is to maintain the shock protection while using it as an EMI shield. Sometimes it can connect directly to the ground at the input jacks. This was a fairly common practice in the earlier days of electronic equipment. These were also in many cases what I would consider lower fidelity equipment and things that did not benefit from three wire AC mains. I do not recommend this as there is the possibility of introducing the EMI noise from the chassis and AC mains earth ground into the signal path. Most methods of making the connection involve resistors, capacitors or rectifiers. I suspect all will work. My preference is for a parallel combination of a metal film resistor of about 120 ohms (1/2 Watt is fine) and a type X2 capacitor in the range of 0.1 to 0.22uF. Type X2 capacitors are rated for use with AC mains circuits. I have seen ceramics and polys used there but since they are not usually AC mains rated I strongly recommend against them. The capacitor and resistor provide sufficient isolation between the chassis and circuitry to allow the chassis to be an effective EMI shield but not induce the EMI into the active circuitry.
By Alix Loane. Circuit. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 21:47:43 PM. Resistors, capacitors, and inductors are the fundamental components of electronic circuits. In fact, all electronic circuits can be equivalently represented by circuits of these three components together with voltage and current sources.
By Alix Loane. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 21:46:31 PM. Be sure to use this to produce a schematic if you need to ask questions about your circuit. It will help others to quickly understand the circuit diagrams are pictures with symbols that have differed from country to country and have changed over time, but are now to a large extent internationally standardized. Simple components often had symbols intended to represent some feature of the physical construction of the device. For example, the symbol for a resistor shown here dates back to the days when that component was made from a long piece of wire wrapped in such a manner as to not produce inductance, which would have made it a coil. These wirewound resistors are now used only in high-power applications, smaller resistors being cast from carbon composition (a mixture of carbon and filler) or fabricated as an insulating tube or chip coated with a metal film. The internationally standardized symbol for a resistor is therefore now simplified to an oblong, sometimes with the value in ohms written inside, instead of the zig-zag symbol. A less common symbol is simply a series of peaks on one side of the line representing the conductor, rather than back-and-forth as shown here. Components and connections involved in your design.
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