By Jessica Mireille. Circuit. Publised at Monday, December 18th 2017, 14:08:09 PM. A single-layer or single-sided PCB is one that is made out of a single layer of base material or substrate. One side of the base material is coated with a thin layer of metal. Copper is the most common coating due to how well it functions as an electrical conductor. Once the copper base plating is applied, a protective solder mask is usually applied, followed by the last silk-screen to mark out all of the elements on the board.
By Bertille Solange. Power. Published at Friday, December 29th 2017, 04:58:06 AM. The output voltage is controlled using a feedback loop, which requires some type of compensation to assure loop stability. Most linear regulators have built-in compensation, and are completely stable without external components. Some regulators (like Low-Dropout types), do require some external capacitance connected from the output lead to ground to assure regulator stability.
By Alix Loane. Motor. Published at Thursday, December 28th 2017, 16:31:25 PM. Inductance (L) has a property called inductive reactance, which for the purposes of this discussion may be thought of as a resistance proportional to frequency and therefore motor speed. According to Ohm’s law, current is equal to voltage divided by resistance. In this case we substitute inductive reactance for resistance in Ohm’s law and conclude motor current is the inverse of motor speed. Since torque is proportional to ampere-turns (current times the number of turns of wire in the winding), and current is the inverse of speed, torque also has to be the inverse of speed. In an ideal step motor, as speed approaches zero, its torque would approach infinity while at infinite speed torque would be zero. Because current is proportional to torque, motor current would be infinite at zero as well.
By Madeleine Catherine. Circuit. Published at Thursday, December 28th 2017, 09:59:36 AM. The concept of complex impedance introduces a unified representation for resistors, capacitors, and inductors, whereby a circuit’s frequency response from input to output can be determined using KVL and KCL, where each element is assigned the appropriate impedance. The key assumption to this point is that the input to the circuit must consist solely of DC and/or sinusoidal signals. Now, this analysis is be extended to include arbitrary input signals by using the mathematical techniques of Laplace transforms.
By Jessica Mireille. Circuit. Published at Thursday, December 28th 2017, 09:47:17 AM. An often used and sometimes confusing term in electronic circuits is the word ground. The ground is a circuit node to which all voltages in a circuit are referenced. In a constant voltage supply circuit, one terminal from each voltage supply is typically connected to ground, or is grounded. For example, the negative terminal of a positive power supply is usually connected to ground so that any current drawn out of the positive terminal can be put back into the negative terminal via ground.
By Valentine Sybille. Car Wiring. Published at Thursday, December 28th 2017, 08:06:34 AM. The electrical system of a car is a closed circuit with an independent power source the battery. It operates on a small fraction of the power of a household circuit. Current flows along a single cable from the battery to the component being powered, and back to the battery through the cars metal body. The body is connected to the earth terminal of the battery by a thick cable.
By Madeleine Catherine. Car Wiring. Published at Thursday, December 28th 2017, 04:52:06 AM. Most car handbooks and service manuals include a wiring diagram which can be difficult to follow. The colour-coding, however, is a useful guide to tracing wiring.
By Bertille Solange. Motor. Published at Thursday, December 28th 2017, 02:57:57 AM. There is a special consideration if the power supply will be at or near the maximum voltage rating of the drive. If the motor will be rapidly decelerating a large inertial load from a high speed, care has to be taken to absorb the returned energy. The energy stored in the momentum of the load must be removed during deceleration and be safely dissipated. Because of its efficiency, the drive has no means of dissipating this energy so it returns it to the power supply. In effect, instead of drawing current from the power supply, the drive becomes a source of current itself. This current may charge the power supply capacitor to destructive voltage levels.
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