By Jessica Mireille. Motor. Publised at Thursday, December 21st 2017, 11:37:52 AM. There is a special consideration if the power supply will be at or near the maximum voltage rating of the drive. If the motor will be rapidly decelerating a large inertial load from a high speed, care has to be taken to absorb the returned energy. The energy stored in the momentum of the load must be removed during deceleration and be safely dissipated. Because of its efficiency, the drive has no means of dissipating this energy so it returns it to the power supply. In effect, instead of drawing current from the power supply, the drive becomes a source of current itself. This current may charge the power supply capacitor to destructive voltage levels.
By Charlotte Myriam. Motor. Publised at Monday, December 18th 2017, 14:50:43 PM. When using multiple drives from a common power supply, use individual supply and ground wires to each drive and return them to a common point back at the power supply. This is called a “star” power supply distribution; never use a “daisy-chain” power distribution, where the supply and ground wires for the next drives are picked up from the previous one.
By Charlotte Myriam. Diagram. Published at Monday, December 18th 2017, 06:12:46 AM. When working with circuits, you will often find something called a schematic diagram. These diagrams use symbols to illustrate what electronic components are used and where they’re placed in the circuit. These symbols are graphic representations of the actual electronic components.
By Valentine Sybille. Diagram. Published at Monday, December 18th 2017, 05:53:49 AM. In contrast to digital circuits, analog circuits use signals whose voltage levels are not constrained to two distinct levels, but instead can assume any value between Vdd and GND. Many input devices, particularly those using electronic sensors (e.g., microphones, cameras, thermometers, pressure sensors, motion and proximity detectors, etc.) produce analog voltages at their outputs. In modern electronic devices, it is likely that such signals will be converted to digital signals before they are used within the device. For example, a digital voice-memo recording device uses an analog microphone circuit to convert sound pressure waves into voltage waves on an internal circuit node. A special circuit called an analog-to-digital converter, or ADC, converts that analog voltage to a binary number that can be represented as a bus in a digital circuit. An ADC functions by taking samples of the input analog signal, measuring the magnitude of the input voltage signal (usually with reference to GND), and assigning a binary number to the measured magnitude. Once an analog signal has been converted to a binary number, a bus can carry that digital information around a circuit. In a similar manner, digital signals can be reconstituted into analog signals using a digital-to-analog converter. Thus, a binary number that represents a sample of an audio waveform can be converted to an analog signal that can, for example, drive a speaker.
By Madeleine Catherine. Power. Published at Monday, December 18th 2017, 05:46:00 AM. If the load current increases to the limiting value, the current limiting circuitry will take control and force the load current to the set limiting value (overriding the voltage error amplifier). The voltage error amplifier can resume control only if the load current is reduced sufficiently to cause the current limiting circuits to release control. This is covered in detail in the "Current Limiting" section.
By Jessica Mireille. Circuit. Published at Monday, December 18th 2017, 05:40:39 AM. An intuitive way to understand the behavior of voltage and current in electronic circuits is to use hydrodynamic systems as an analogue. In this system, voltage is represented by gravitational potential or height of the fluid column, and current is represented by the fluid flow rate.
By Lydie Honorine. Diagram. Published at Monday, December 18th 2017, 05:16:38 AM. Several different resistors are used on Digilent boards. Some are used to limit LED current, and some are used on inputs (like the button and switch circuits) to both limit the currents flowing to the main chip, and to help protect against electrostatic discharge (or ESD – more on this topic later). The resistors on the Digilent boards, like most resistors used in digital systems, are physically small because they will not encounter large voltages or currents. For these smaller resistors, the resistor value in Ohms is printed in microscopic numbers on the resistor body, not visible to the naked eye.
By Madeleine Catherine. Diagram. Published at Monday, December 18th 2017, 04:49:04 AM. Voltage nodes are single-terminal schematic components, which we can connect component terminals to in order to assign them to a specific voltage level. These are a special application of net names, meaning all terminals connected to a like-named voltage node are connected together.
By Valentine Sybille. Circuit. Published at Monday, December 18th 2017, 04:45:11 AM. The concept of complex impedance introduces a unified representation for resistors, capacitors, and inductors, whereby a circuit’s frequency response from input to output can be determined using KVL and KCL, where each element is assigned the appropriate impedance. The key assumption to this point is that the input to the circuit must consist solely of DC and/or sinusoidal signals. Now, this analysis is be extended to include arbitrary input signals by using the mathematical techniques of Laplace transforms.
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