By Jessica Mireille.

Power. Publised at Monday, December 18th 2017, 08:45:14 AM. In shunt regulation a resistor is typically placed in series with the load and the unregulated voltage. The resistor is small enough so that the load could always receive somewhat more than the maximum current it would ever need. The shunt regulator is placed across the load and conducts excess current around the load such that the voltage across the load remains a constant as the load draws the actual current at any given time. A common shunt regulator is a Zener diode which is an example of an open loop system. Feedback control can also be used to drive the current through the control element (a transistor) across the load. Shunt regulators are generally only used for low power applications because they can be very inefficient. However, shunt regulators have an inherent fault current limiting feature and also can regulate even if the load is forcing current into the regulator rather than drawing current from it. Shunt regulators also have an interesting feature that the input current is constant – independent of load current (except if a load fault occurs – but that is a special case not in normal operation). Thus shunt regulators are very good at isolating a load with rapid and large current fluctuations.

By Lydie Honorine.

Circuit. Published at Monday, December 25th 2017, 14:51:40 PM. For DC signals, the linearity of the system implies that H is independent of Vin. For dynamic signals, the transfer function cannot in general be described simply. However, if the input is a sinusoidal signal then the output must also be a sinusoidal signal with the same frequency but possibly a different amplitude and phase. In other words, a linear system can only modify the amplitude and phase of a sinusoidal input.

By Charlotte Myriam.

Circuit. Published at Monday, December 25th 2017, 14:48:28 PM. A single-layer or single-sided PCB is one that is made out of a single layer of base material or substrate. One side of the base material is coated with a thin layer of metal. Copper is the most common coating due to how well it functions as an electrical conductor. Once the copper base plating is applied, a protective solder mask is usually applied, followed by the last silk-screen to mark out all of the elements on the board.

By Cyrielle Marjolaine.

Motor. Published at Monday, December 25th 2017, 14:35:01 PM. To make your own power supply you must have three key components: a transformer, bridge rectifier, and filter capacitor. The transformer’s current rating must be sufficient to adequately run all motors that will be run from it using the above current formula. The DC output voltage will be 1.4 times the transformer’s AC voltage rating of the secondary. For example, a 24VAC transformer secondary will provide about 34VDC at the output of the supply. The bridge rectifier’s voltage and current ratings must exceed what the supply will deliver. Finally the minimum filter capacitor size must be calculated.

By Alix Loane.

Circuit. Published at Monday, December 25th 2017, 14:11:41 PM. When multiple components are connected in parallel, the voltage drop is the same across all components. When multiple components are connected in series, the total voltage is the sum of the voltages across each component. These two statements can be generalized as Kirchoff’s Voltage Law (KVL), which states that the sum of voltages around any closed loop (e.g. starting at one node, and ending at the same node) is zero.

By Alix Loane.

Circuit. Published at Monday, December 25th 2017, 13:08:37 PM. When multiple components are connected in series, each component must carry the same current. When multiple components are connected in parallel, the total current is the sum of the currents flowing through each individual component. These statements are generalized as Kirchoff’s Current Law (KCL), which states that the sum of currents entering and exiting a node must be zero.

By Sasha Sara.

Circuit. Published at Monday, December 25th 2017, 12:51:04 PM. The real part and imaginary part of impedance are interpreted as a resistive part that dissipates energy and a reactive part that stores energy. Resistors can only dissipate energy and therefore their impedances have only a real part. Capacitors and inductors can only store energy and therefore their impedances have only an imaginary part. When resistors, capacitors, and inductors are combined, the overall impedance may have both real and imaginary parts. It is important to note that the definition of impedance preserves the definition of resistance.

By Madeleine Catherine.

Circuit. Published at Monday, December 25th 2017, 12:47:39 PM. The concept of complex impedance introduces a unified representation for resistors, capacitors, and inductors, whereby a circuit’s frequency response from input to output can be determined using KVL and KCL, where each element is assigned the appropriate impedance. The key assumption to this point is that the input to the circuit must consist solely of DC and/or sinusoidal signals. Now, this analysis is be extended to include arbitrary input signals by using the mathematical techniques of Laplace transforms.

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