By Charlotte Myriam. Circuit. Publised at Friday, December 22nd 2017, 07:40:14 AM. Electric circuits use electric power to perform some function, like energize a heating or lighting element, turn a motor, or create an electromagnetic filed. Electronic circuits differ from electric circuits in that they use devices that can themselves be controlled by other electric signals. Restated, electronic circuits are built from devices that use electricity to control electricity. Most electronic circuits use signals that are within 5 to 10 volts of ground; most circuits built within the past several years use signals that are within 3 to 5 volts from ground. Some electronic circuits represent information encoded as continuous voltage levels that can wander between the high and low voltage supply rails – these are called analog circuits. As an example, a sound pressure level transducer (i.e. a microphone) might drive a signal between 0V and 3.3V in direct proportion to the detected sound pressure level. In this case, the voltage signal output from the microphone is said to be an analog ifthe sound pressure wave itself. Other circuits use only two distinct voltage levels to represent information. Most often, these two voltage levels use the same voltages supplied by the power rails. In these circuits, called digital circuits, all information must be represented as binary numbers, with a signal at 0V (or ground) representing one kind of information, and a signal at 3.3V (or whatever the upper voltage supply rail provides) representing the other kind of information. In this series of modules, we will confine our discussions to digital circuits.
By Bertille Solange. Circuit. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 09:04:42 AM. First let’s understand the difference between these two terms. While electrical is the basis of everything, electronic is a subset of electrical. An electrical circuit deals with just the flow of electrons and has components like resistors, inductors and capacitors and uses Alternating Current Source; while electronic circuit deals with the transformation of current and controlling the motion of the electrons and uses Direct Current Source. An electrical circuit is termed as Passive because it doesn’t have any such component that reacts to the current/voltage that passes through them and electronic circuit is called active because of the additional components like diode or a transformer that react to the current/voltage that passes through.
By Bertille Solange. Circuit. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 07:58:11 AM. When a voltage is applied across a conductor, a current will begin to flow. The ratio between voltage and current is known as resistance. For most metallic conductors, the relationship between voltage and current is linear.
By Charlotte Myriam. Amplifier. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 07:53:55 AM. First and probably the most important thing I learned is all grounds should not go directly to the chassis. This seems contrary to logic. A little side trip into electricity and conductors is appropriate now. Any conductor has some finite resistance and anytime some current is passed through it a voltage will be correspondingly created. Actually the voltage is first, but in this case we want to concentrate on the current. In a typical piece of audio equipment (most everything else as well) there are usually three distinct ground circuits. The first is obvious, the signal ground, the second is the power supply ground and third and often ignored is the case or chassis ground. Each has a particular function and all interact. The signal ground usual and primary function is to provide a return path for the audio. Likewise the power supply ground is the return path for the power used by the circuitry. The case ground I will cover a bit later. Remembering that anytime current flows through a conductor it will cause a voltage, let us see what happens if you mix the signal and power grounds. Each will generate a proportional corresponding voltage. So for an example: the conductor is a piece of wire that has a 1 ohm resistance, the signal voltage (and thus its return) has one millivolt (mV)of amplitude and the power supply is causing a flow of 100 milliamperes (mA) through the wire. The contribution to the voltages on the conductor is then, 1 mV for the signal and 0.1 Ampere times 1 ohm equals 100 mV for the power - see Ohm Law for equations. Since it is really unlikely that the power is perfectly clean DC it will contaminate the signal with hum and noise. Even a 1% noise level in the DC will result in a noise voltage equal to the signal voltage. I grant that this is a gross simplification, but it does illustrate the situation. So my rule number one is to absolutely avoid having any ground conductor handling both signal and power. So how do you do this? I find that a sort of modular arrangement is best. This does not mean that the physical components ca not be on the same board though. What it does mean is that the power supply is wired independently from the active signal portion. Eventually these grounds need to connect, but I will get to that later.
By Cyrielle Marjolaine. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 07:36:43 AM. If there’s something on a schematic that just doesn’t make sense, try finding a datasheet for the most important component. Usually the component doing the most work on a circuit is an integrated circuit, like a microcontroller or sensor. These are usually the largest component, oft-located at the center of the schematic.
By Charlotte Myriam. Motor. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 07:36:40 AM. In the previous section it was shown that motor torque varies inversely with speed. This then is the motor’s natural speed-torque curve. Below a certain speed, called the corner speed, current would rise above the motor’s rated current, ultimately to destructive levels as the motor’s speed is reduced further.
By Valentine Sybille. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 07:35:16 AM. Inductors are usually represented by either a series of curved bumps, or loopy coils. International symbols may just define an inductor as a filled-in rectangle.
By Lydie Honorine. Diagram. Published at Tuesday, December 26th 2017, 07:31:48 AM. A digital circuit requires a power supply to provide a constant and stable source of electric power to all devices. As discussed above, electric power is derived from the basic electrical forces that charged particles (e.g., protons and electrons) exert on one another – namely, electrons are repelled by other electrons, and attracted to more electrically positive areas where there are relatively fewer electrons. The vast majority of charged particles are found in ordinary matter bound in electrically neutral atomic structures (that is, most particles are found in structures that have an equal number of positive and negative particles). Some electrically neutral conducting materials (like metals) contain electrons that are not so tightly bound to their host atoms. If a voltage source is applied to these materials, the lightly bound electrons will move away from the concentrated source of electrons on the negative side of the supply towards the electrically positive side of the supply. A “power supply” in a digital circuit provides a local, contained imbalance of electrons that provides a voltage source that can do useful work, such as transmitting information through a conductor from one device to another. A digital circuit allows a controlled flow of electrons from of the negative to positive side of the power supply, but only via the paths designed into the circuit. As electrons flow to and from the devices in a given circuit, they can change device properties in useful ways.
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