By Charlotte Myriam. Diagram. Publised at Friday, December 22nd 2017, 11:47:17 AM. In contrast to digital circuits, analog circuits use signals whose voltage levels are not constrained to two distinct levels, but instead can assume any value between Vdd and GND. Many input devices, particularly those using electronic sensors (e.g., microphones, cameras, thermometers, pressure sensors, motion and proximity detectors, etc.) produce analog voltages at their outputs. In modern electronic devices, it is likely that such signals will be converted to digital signals before they are used within the device. For example, a digital voice-memo recording device uses an analog microphone circuit to convert sound pressure waves into voltage waves on an internal circuit node. A special circuit called an analog-to-digital converter, or ADC, converts that analog voltage to a binary number that can be represented as a bus in a digital circuit. An ADC functions by taking samples of the input analog signal, measuring the magnitude of the input voltage signal (usually with reference to GND), and assigning a binary number to the measured magnitude. Once an analog signal has been converted to a binary number, a bus can carry that digital information around a circuit. In a similar manner, digital signals can be reconstituted into analog signals using a digital-to-analog converter. Thus, a binary number that represents a sample of an audio waveform can be converted to an analog signal that can, for example, drive a speaker.
By Alix Loane. Motor. Published at Monday, January 01st 2018, 01:35:25 AM. The drive remedies this instability by adding a second-order, or viscous, damping. This damping decreases the total phase lag so the motor cannot sustain oscillation, much in the same way shock absorbers damp the mass-spring suspension of a vehicle.
By Charlotte Myriam. Diagram. Published at Monday, January 01st 2018, 00:41:34 AM. Electronic components are often assembled and interconnected on a flat surface known as a circuit board. The several types of existing circuit boards may be divided into two broad categories: those intended for prototype or experimental circuits; and those intended for production and/or commercial sale. Circuit boards used for experimental work are often referred to as breadboards or protoboards. Breadboards allow engineers to construct circuits quickly, so that they can be studied and modified until an optimal design is discovered. In a typical breadboard use, components and wires are added to a circuit in an ad hoc manner as the design proceeds, with new data and new understanding dictating the course of the design. Since breadboard circuits exist only in the laboratory, no special consideration need be given to creating reliable or simple-to-manufacture circuits – the designer can focus exclusively on the circuits behavior. In contrast, circuit boards intended for production or commercial sale must have highly reliable wires and interconnects, permanent bonds to all components, and topographies amenable to mass production and thorough testing. And further, they must be made of a material that is reliable, low-cost, and easy to manufacture. A fiberglass substratewith copper wires (etched from laminated copper sheets) has been the PCB material of choice for the past several decades. The Digilent board is a simple example of such a board. Note that most often, production circuit board designs are finalized only after extensive breadboard phases. Components are permanently affixed to production boards using the soldering process.
By Valentine Sybille. Motor. Published at Sunday, December 31st 2017, 20:18:35 PM. The result will be in microfarads for the capacitor if the value for “I” is amperes of current needed and “V” is the output voltage of the supply. When picking the capacitor, any value equal to or greater than the calculated value can be used. Be sure to use a capacitor with a voltage rating at least 20% higher than the output voltage of the power supply.
By Sasha Sara. Diagram. Published at Sunday, December 31st 2017, 20:15:29 PM. Learning about basic electronics and creating your own projects is a lot easier than you may think. In this tutorial, we’re going to give you a brief overview of common electronic components and explain what their functions are. You will then learn about schematic diagrams and how they are used to design and build circuits. And finally, you will put this information to use by creating your first basic circuit.
By Madeleine Catherine. Power. Published at Sunday, December 31st 2017, 18:46:44 PM. Many of the new LDO regulators are optimized for low quiescent current (like 75 to 150 mA), and provide significant improvement over typical regulators which draw several milliamps.
By Jessica Mireille. Car Wiring. Published at Sunday, December 31st 2017, 16:28:47 PM. When fitting extra accessories, such as a rear window heater which consumes a heavy current, always wire it through the ignition switch. Some ancillary components can be operated without the ignition turned on by turning the switch to the "auxiliary" position. A radio is usually wired through this switch, so that it can be played with the engine off.
By Madeleine Catherine. Motor. Published at Sunday, December 31st 2017, 15:23:47 PM. If you are using several different models of motors on the same power supply use the lowest inductance rating in the above formula. This will ensure that your motors will not overheat due to the voltage being too high.
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